The formation of calcifications (also called calculi) in the BLADDER. Most bladder stones, like kidney stones, form of calcium in combination with oxalate (the most common combination), phosphate, or magnesium. Bladder stones are less common today than kidney stones (NEPHROLITHIASIS), though throughout recorded history bladder stones have been a common urologic condition. Bladder stones are most likely to form when URINE remains in the bladder for an extended time, particularly with URINARY RETENTION (in which the bladder fails to completely empty with URINATION). URETHRAL STRICTURE, CYSTOCELE, BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA (BPH), long-term BLADDER CATHETERIZATION, and NEUROGENIC BLADDER are among the conditions that contribute to the formation of bladder stones. Chronic DEHYDRATION, such as occurs with drinking too little water, further contributes to calcification. Bladder stones are also common during PREGNANCY.
In urinary stasis the minerals dissolved in the urine begin to settle out when the urine is static (not moving), forming crystals. The formed crystals attract more of their composite minerals, eventually hardening into calculi. Small stones often easily pass through the urethra in the urine without the person’s awareness of them. Stones that are large enough to scrape the walls of the urethra, or sandlike clumps of calculi that surge through the URETHRA, may cause irritation such as DYSURIA (burning sensation) with urination. Other symptoms may include URINARY FREQUENCY, URINARY URGENCY, and urinary hesitation (difficulty starting urination, or start-and-stop urination).
A stone that completely blocks the urethra, often at the neck of the bladder, causes excruciating PAIN that may feel as though it arises in the groin or, in men, in the TESTES (testicles). Often a change in position relieves the pain, causing the urine to wash the stone from its point of occlusion. A stone that is larger than the diameter of the urethra will intermittently though persistently obstruct the passage of urine. It may also cause bleeding, resulting in HEMATURIA (blood in the urine).
The diagnostic path typically includes urinalysis, ULTRASOUND to detect the presence of stones in the bladder, and CYSTOSCOPY. Cystoscopy often is both diagnostic and therapeutic, allowing the urologist to confirm the presence of stones as well as remove them from the bladder. Larger stones may require treatments such as EXTRACORPOREAL SHOCKWAVE LITHOTRIPSY (ESWL) or surgical procedures such as percutaneous lithotomy or open cystostomy to remove the stones. Most people recover fully. Bladder stones tend to recur, however.
See also CYSTINURIA; HYPERCALCIURIA; HYPEROXALURIA.
Resource: Facts On File Encyclopedia Of Health And Medicine
At birth the structures of the urinary system are fully developed and function under the automatic control of the NERVOUS SYSTEM. The newborn’s KIDNEYS filter BLOOD and make URINE. The BLADDER collects the urine and, when it fills to a point that triggers the micturition REFLEX, it empties to drain urine via the URETHRA to outside the body. Voluntary
Excessive excretion of ALBUMIN, a form of protein, into the URINE. Albuminuria, also called proteinuria, typically indicates kidney conditions that affect the glomeruli (the tubular structures within the KIDNEYS that filter wastes and excess water from the BLOOD to excrete in the urine). Such conditions include GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, GLOMERULOSCLEROSIS,
What is Alport’s Syndrome An inherited genetic disorder in which one, two, or three mutations occur in the GENE that encodes type IV collagen formations, also called basement membranes. The mutations affect up to three of the six protein chains (alpha-3, alpha-4, and alpha-5) that make up type IV collagen, which is a foundation for a number of
What is Anuria and Definition Anuria - The failure to produce URINE. Numerous circumstances can result in anuria, from severe DEHYDRATION and severe HYPOTENSION (low BLOOD PRESSURE) to END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE (ESRD) and RENAL FAILURE. Anuria requires prompt medical evaluation to determine and remedy the underlying cause. Without such correction, waste
What is Bladder and Definition A muscular, saclike structure in the lower pelvis that serves as a reservoir for the URINE the KIDNEYS produce. In women the bladder is in front of and slightly below the UTERUS. During PREGNANCY the expanding uterus limits the bladder’s ability to expand, accounting for the URINARY FREQUENCY common in pregnancy’s
What is Uremia and Definition Uremia is a serious condition in which nitrogenbased toxins such as urea and creatinine, the primary waste products of METABOLISM, accumulate in the BLOOD because the KIDNEYS are unable to filter them out and pass them from the body via the URINE. Uremia indicates RENAL FAILURE. Urologists sometimes use the term azotemia to
Ureter, in a human organism, is a muscular tube, fairly thick and rigid, that leads URINE from the kidney to the urinary BLADDER. Both of the two tubular structures arise from the renal pelvis and collect the urine from the kidney’s collecting tubules. Both ureters with the inner diameter of 3 or 4 millimeters exit the kidney at the hilus. Then, the
A narrow, somewhat muscular tube that carries URINE from the BLADDER to the outside of the body. The point of exit is the urinary or urethral meatus. The urethral sphincter MUSCLE at the base of the bladder controls the release of urine into the urethra. Once the urethral sphincter relaxes to let urine pass, the urine flows to the outside of the body until
What is Urethral Stricture Narrowing of the URETHRA, impeding the passage of URINE from the BLADDER to the outside of the body. Urethral stricture may be congenital (present at birth) or acquired such as through scarring resulting from repeated URETHRITIS, BLADDER CATHETERIZATION, and other irritations to the urethra. BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA (BPH) and
What is Urethritis and Definition INFLAMMATION of an URETER. INFECTION, typically a sexually transmitted disease (STD), is the most common cause of urethritis though urethritis may occur as a result of inflammation or irritation from trauma such as occurs with BLADDER CATHETERIZATION or CYSTOSCOPY. Traumatic urethritis improves rapidly when the source of