At birth the structures of the urinary system are fully developed and function under the automatic control of the NERVOUS SYSTEM. The newborn’s KIDNEYS filter BLOOD and make URINE. The BLADDER collects the urine and, when it fills to a point that triggers the micturition REFLEX, it empties to drain urine via the URETHRA to outside the body. Voluntary control over URINATION develops between three and five years of age, the rite of passage from
Excessive excretion of ALBUMIN, a form of protein, into the URINE. Albuminuria, also called proteinuria, typically indicates kidney conditions that affect the glomeruli (the tubular structures within the KIDNEYS that filter wastes and excess water from the BLOOD to excrete in the urine). Such conditions include GLOMERULONEPHRITIS, GLOMERULOSCLEROSIS, NEPHROTIC SYNDROME, and NEPHROPATHY of DIABETES or of HYPERTENSION (high BLOOD PRESSURE). Albuminuria may
What is Alport’s Syndrome An inherited genetic disorder in which one, two, or three mutations occur in the GENE that encodes type IV collagen formations, also called basement membranes. The mutations affect up to three of the six protein chains (alpha-3, alpha-4, and alpha-5) that make up type IV collagen, which is a foundation for a number of structures in the body including the glomeruli in the KIDNEYS, COCHLEA in the inner EAR, LENS of the EYE,
What is Anuria and Definition Anuria - The failure to produce URINE. Numerous circumstances can result in anuria, from severe DEHYDRATION and severe HYPOTENSION (low BLOOD PRESSURE) to END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE (ESRD) and RENAL FAILURE. Anuria requires prompt medical evaluation to determine and remedy the underlying cause. Without such correction, waste byproducts accumulate to toxic levels and the body cannot continue to function.
What is Bladder and Definition A muscular, saclike structure in the lower pelvis that serves as a reservoir for the URINE the KIDNEYS produce. In women the bladder is in front of and slightly below the UTERUS. During PREGNANCY the expanding uterus limits the bladder’s ability to expand, accounting for the URINARY FREQUENCY common in pregnancy’s last trimester. In men the bladder is in front of the RECTUM, with the PROSTATE GLAND encircling
What is Bladder Cancer and Definition The growth of a malignant (cancerous) tumor in the BLADDER. Bladder CANCER may be primary or metastatic (travel to the bladder from a point of origin elsewhere in the body). Doctors diagnose bladder cancer in about 55,000 Americans each year. Bladder cancer is about three times more common in men, and in the United States is the fourth most common cancer among men. Bladder cancer claims about 12,000 lives in the
What is Bladder Catheterization and Definition The insertion of a narrow, flexible tube into the BLADDER through the URETHRA to drain URINE from the body. Bladder catheterization may be necessary to collect an uncontaminated (sterile) urine sample or to drain urine from the bladder. The catheter placement may be short term, such as after surgery or during serious illness, or long term, such as when STROKE, PARALYSIS, or other condition results in loss of
What is Bladder Exstrophy and Definition An uncommon CONGENITAL ANOMALY in which the structures of the lower pelvis fail to form properly. As a consequence, the BLADDER protrudes outside the body and may be open or inverted. The URETHRA often fails to close as well. Bladder exstrophy is a random birth defect and is not a hereditary birth defect. About 100 infants are born with bladder exstrophy, which varies widely in severity, each year in the United