What is Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) A complex of symptoms, formerly called adult respiratory distress syndrome, in which respiratory distress and RESPIRATORY FAILURE develop accompanying severe illness or trauma. ARDS involves the whole of both LUNGS, as the lungs become inflamed and fill with fluid. ARDS may develop as a consequence of injury that directly affects the lungs (notably blunt trauma to the chest, near drowning, PNEUMONIA, and
The LUNGS and tracheobronchial structures undergo few but significant changes over the course of the lifespan. From moments after birth to near the end of life the lungs function continuously and consistently, bringing air into the body to deliver oxygen to the BLOOD and carrying air out of the body to eliminate carbon dioxide and other gaseous metabolic wastes from the body. The entire respiratory process-BREATHING and oxygenation-takes place under the
What is Alveolus Definition and Function Alveolusia is a tiny, thin-walled sac, grouped in clusters at the ends of the smallest airways (bronchioles) deep inside the LUNGS, that is the terminus for each breath of air. A dense mesh of capillaries entwines each alveolus. Oxygen from the air within the alveolus passes across the alveolar membrane to enter the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide and other waste gases pass across the membrane from the BLOOD to
What is Anthracosis and Definition Anthracosis - Black Lung - a lung condition resulting from long-term exposure to coal dust, also called coal worker’s PNEUMONOCONIOSIS (CWP) and black lung disease. There are two types of anthracosis: simple and complicated. In simple anthracosis the coal dust coats the LUNGS in wide distribution, and the IMMUNE RESPONSE encapsulates the dust particles without causing scarring (fibrosis). This is the most common
Apnea is the temporary and involuntary cessation of BREATHING. Apnea may result from neurologic causes (central apnea), mechanical causes (obstructive apnea), or a combination of both. Central apnea is more common in premature infants, whose nervous systems are not fully developed, and the very elderly, whose nervous systems may be failing. Central apnea is also more common in people who have underlying neurologic disorders or who have heart failure.
Asbestosis is damage to the LUNGS resulting from inhalation of asbestos fibers. During the first half of the 20th century asbestos, a natural substance mined from underground, became common in insulating materials because of its natural heat resistance. In the 1950s researchers linked chronic asbestos inhalation with PULMONARY FIBROSIS and a rare form of LUNG CANCER, mesothelioma, found almost exclusively in people with asbestos exposure. In the 1970s the
What is Aspergillosis and Definition Aspergillosis is an opportunistic fungal (yeast) INFECTION that can manifest as PNEUMONIA in people who have HIV/AIDS, are undergoing CHEMOTHERAPY to treat cancer, receive IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE THERAPY after ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION, or are otherwise IMMUNOCOMPROMISED. Aspergillosis may also occur as an allergic reaction (called allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis or ABPA) in people who have ASTHMA or CYSTIC FIBROSIS,
Asphyxia - the inability of the LUNGS to take in air or conduct the OXYGEN-CARBON DIOXIDE EXCHANGE, depriving the body of oxygen. Asphyxia is a life-threatening emergency that requires immediate medical treatment.