Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD) is progressive condition that results in the gradual deterioration of the macula, the portion of the RETINA that provides the ability to see fine detail, and loss of vision from the center of the field of vision. ARMD is the leading cause of VISION IMPAIRMENT, resulting in functional limitations and legal blindness in people over the age of 50. ARMD develops when the retina’s BLOOD supply diminishes. The
The structures of the EYE and the processes of vision begin to undergo changes in the late fourth or early fifth decade of life. By age 65, 50 percent of people have vision impairments. By age 80, more than 90 percent of people have vision impairments. Treatment can mitigate some of these changes, such as PRESBYOPIA and CATARACT. Some conditions that affect the eye and vision develop secondary to other health conditions that are more prevalent in older
Amsler Grid is a basic test to detect or monitor the progression of AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION (ARMD), a condition in which the macula, the area on the RETINA responsible for fine detail vision, deteriorates. The Amsler grid is a square with evenly spaced horizontal and vertical lines, and a dot in the center of the grid. The grid’s four corners and lines should appear visible, straight, and intact. Wavy lines, gaps in the lines, or missing
Blepharoplasty is a surgical OPERATION to remove excess tissue from the eyelids to correct drooping upper eyelids and “baggy” lower eyelids. Such conditions most commonly develop as a consequence of aging or extensive weight loss or when there is damage to the nerves that control the eyelid muscles (such as with PARKINSON’S DISEASE). An ophthalmologist or a plastic surgeon performs blepharoplasty, usually as an AMBULATORY SURGERY (also
Braille - a tactile (touch-based) system of written language that features patterns of raised dots to represent letters of the alphabet, common words and contractions, mathematical symbols, and punctuation. Named after its developer, Louis Braille (1809–1852), braille allows people who are blind to read and, with adaptive typewriters and computer technology, to write. Six dots, in two columns of three dots each, form the foundation for braille; the
Bullous Keratopathy - swelling (edema) and blistering of the CORNEA. Bullous keratopathy most commonly develops as a complication following CATARACT EXTRACTION AND LENS REPLACEMENT or other surgery on the EYE, though it also may develop as a consequence of chronic irritation such as might occur with DRY EYE SYNDROME. The healthy cornea is about 75 percent water. One function of the cells that surround the cornea is to maintain this fluid balance.
Cataract Extraction and Lens Replacement surgery - an OPERATION to remove the LENS from the EYE after a CATARACT (cloudy occlusion in the lens) forms and replace it with a prosthetic intraocular lens (IOL). Ophthalmologists can extract a cataract at any stage of its development. The vast majority of people who undergo cataract extraction fully recover without complications and experience VISUAL ACUITY correctable to 20/40 or better.
Cicatricial Pemphigoid - an autoimmune disorder in which painful blisters form on the inner surfaces of the eyelids (and may form on other mucus membranes, such as in the MOUTH and NOSE). SCAR tissue that forms after the blisters heal continues to irritate the inner eyelids as well as the outer surface of the EYE (sclera and CORNEA). The blisters commonly involve the lacrimal (tear) glands and ducts, reducing tear production and causing DRY EYE SYNDROME.