Aerobic Fitness and Cardiovascular System The efficiency with which the cardiovascular system functions to meet the oxygen needs of cells throughout the body, particularly under the increased pressure of intense physical activity or exercise. The higher a person’s aerobic FITNESS LEVEL, the more air the LUNGS can take in each breath, the more oxygen that enters the BLOOD, and the more blood the HEART can eject with each contraction. The outcome is
The most significant age-related changes in cardiovascular function occur at birth in both sexes and with MENOPAUSE in women. Though changes in METABOLISM occur with aging that affect all body systems, researchers now believe cardiovascular health does not inherently decline simply as a function of aging. DIABETES, OBESITY, lack of physical exercise, and cigarette smoking are the leading causes of acquired CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (CVD) among adults. The
What is Aneurysm and Definition Aneurysm is a weakened and often distended (stretched) area in the wall of an ARTERY. Though an aneurysm may develop in any artery, the most common location is the descending or abdominal AORTA. An aneurysm is potentially life-threatening. The continual pressure of the BLOOD flowing through the artery pressures the weakened area, which can cause the layers of the artery’s wall to further split and separate, called a
What is Angina Pectoris and Definition Angina Pectoris - chest discomfort originating from the HEART, usually resulting from restricted BLOOD flow due to CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE (CAD) that occludes (blocks) one or more of the CORONARY ARTERIES. Coronary ARTERY spasm, especially that resulting from COCAINE use, may also cause angina. Some people experience a crushing pressure that radiates into the left shoulder, arm, and THROAT. Other people experience
Angiogram is a diagnostic test to visualize BLOOD vessels. The test is an angiography; the result is an angiogram. The cardiologist or vascular specialist injects dye into the relevant blood vessels to assess the flow of blood through them, observing the flow via FLUOROSCOPY (moving X-rays). Angiography is useful for diagnosing PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASE (PVD), CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE (CAD), VENOUS INSUFFICIENCY, and DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS (DVT). The
What is Anginoplasty Procedure and Definition Angioplasty is a CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION procedure to widen the opening of an ARTERY, generally as treatment for ANGINA PECTORIS, CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE (CAD), or PERIPHERAL VASCULAR DISEASE (PVD). Angioplasty is most effective when the occlusion is between 70 percent and 90 percent and affects only one or two locations within the arteries. More extensive occlusion in the coronary arteries may require
Anticoagulation Therapy is prophylactic (preventive) treatment with medications to reduce the risk of BLOOD clots, broadly including approaches that inhibit various stages of COAGULATION. Anticoagulation therapy is common treatment for a number of cardiovascular conditions including ATRIAL FIBRILLATION, INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION, DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS (DVT), PULMONARY EMBOLISM, and VALVULAR HEART DISEASE, and following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION (HEART ATTACK)
The Aorta is ARTERY that carries BLOOD from the HEART to the body. The largest blood vessel in the body, the aorta arises from the left ventricle. At its widest point the aorta is about one and a half inches in diameter. As the aorta leaves the heart it ascends to curve behind the right atrium. The first arteries to branch from the base of the ascending aorta are the right and left CORONARY ARTERIES that supply the heart MUSCLE (MYOCARDIUM) with blood.