Polydactyly is extra fingers or toes. Polydactyly may occur spontaneously and isolated (without apparent cause) or in conjunction with GENETIC DISORDERS such as PATAU’S SYNDROME (trisomy 13). Most often the extra digit is on the little finger or little toe side of the hand or foot, respectively, and is so rudimentary as to be functionless. Nearly always the doctor recommends removing the extra digit, which may be done with banding (the doctor places a band tightly around the base of a rudimentary digit, cutting off its BLOOD supply so it slowly withers and falls off) or as a surgical AMPUTATION.
See also AUTOSOMAL TRISOMY; SYNDACTYLY.
Resource: Facts On File Encyclopedia Of Health And Medicine
What is Arthroscopy A MINIMALLY INVASIVE SURGERY procedure that allows an orthopedic surgeon to view the inside of a JOINT using a lighted, flexible endoscope adapted for this use, called an arthroscope. Arthroscopy, also called arthroscopic surgery, has both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Inserted into the joint through a small incision, the
Meniscectomy is surgical OPERATION to remove part or all of a damaged meniscus in the knee. Each knee has two menisci, C-shaped pads of CARTILAGE that cushion the ends of the femur (thigh BONE) and tibia (shin bone) as they come together within the knee JOINT. Meniscus tears are common ATHLETIC INJURIES and occur when there is torsion under pressure-the
What is Knee Injuries and Definition Knee injuries - Sprains, strains, CARTILAGE tears, and fractures involving the structures of the knee. The knee is a hinge JOINT that allows the leg to flex (bend back) and straighten, essential actions of walking. Unique among hinge joints in the body, the knee also allows a small amount of rotation. The knee is
What is Achilles Tendon and Definition Achilles Tendon - A thick, strong band of connective tissue at the back of the heel that joins the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of the calf (back of the lower leg) to the calcaneus (heel BONE). The Achilles TENDON makes possible extension of the foot, a necessary element of walking, running, and jumping. A sharp
What is Achilles Tendon Injury Achilles tendon injury is Traumatic damage to the ACHILLES TENDON, the broad band of connective tissue that joins the calf muscles to the heel of the foot. The most common Achilles TENDON injury is INFLAMMATION, called Achilles TENDONITIS, tends to develop somewhat gradually as an overuse injury. A tear in the Achilles
What is Achondroplasia and Dwarfism Achondroplasia is a genetic disorder in which the rate CARTILAGE cells (chondrocytes) convert to BONE cells is greatly slower than normal, resulting in skeletal abnormalities such as shortened limbs and diminished height. Achondroplasia is the most common cause of SKELETAL DYSPLASIA, commonly called dwarfism. Though
What is Adhesive Capsulitis Adhesive Capsulitis shoulder is a condition in which the JOINT capsule of the shoulder joint fuses (adheres) to the head of the humerus (long BONE of the upper arm), causing PAIN and constricting range of motion. Doctors do not know what causes adhesive capsulitis, commonly called frozen shoulder. The condition may be primary,
What are Athletic Injuries ACCIDENTAL INJURIES that occur during athletic activities or sporting events. Though a certain degree of risk is inherent in athletic events, particularly competitions, most athletic injuries occur for three main reasons. They are inadequate CONDITIONING or TRAINING insufficient WARM-UP and pre-event
What is Arthrogryposis and Definition The collective term for a group of congenital disorders, also called arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, in which multiple contractures restrict JOINT function throughout the body. Joints may be partially or completely fused. Researchers believe about 30 percent of arthrogryposis develops when the FETUS is not able to
What is Ankylosing Spondylitis A form of chronic, degenerative arthritis (INFLAMMATION of the joints) that primarily affects the spine. The inflammation permanently damages the vertebrae (bones of the spine), causing outgrowths of bony tissue that fuse vertebrae to one another such that their mobility and range of motion can become extremely limited.