Stomach - the pouchlike organ that receives and digests food. The stomach can stretch up to six times its resting size to accommodate influxes of food and drink up to about the combined quantity of a gallon. Three layers of MUSCLE wrap around the deeply pitted gastric mucosa (mucous membrane lining of the stomach). The fibers of each muscle layer run in different directions: the layer innermost to the mucosa is oblique (diagonal), the middle layer of muscle is horizontal (encircles the stomach), and the outermost layer runs lengthwise. This arrangement allows the stomach to flex and contract in every direction to mix and break apart food particles.
|CONDITIONS THAT CAN AFFECT THE STOMACH|
|CYCLIC VOMITING SYNDROME||DYSPEPSIA|
|GASTRITIS||GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISORDER (GERD)|
|PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE||STOMACH CANCER|
The stomach produces gastric acid, which is primarily hydrochloric acid, and several DIGESTIVE ENZYMES. Though the stomach digests carbohydrates and some proteins, its primary role is to prepare food for the SMALL INTESTINE where the bulk of digestion takes place.
For further discussion of the stomach within the context of gastrointestinal structure and function, please see the overview section “The Gastrointestinal System.”
See also COLON; DIET AND HEALTH; DIGESTIVE HORMONES; ESOPHAGUS; GASTRECTOMY; HELICOBACTER PYLORI; H2 ANTAGONIST (BLOCKER) MEDICATIONS; INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE (IBD); NAUSEA; NUTRITIONAL DEFICIENCY; PROTON PUMP INHIBITOR (PPI) MEDICATION; VOMITING.
Resource: Facts On File Encyclopedia Of Health And Medicine
Dyspepsia - the clinical term for indigestion or heartburn. Most people experience dyspepsia as a burning PAIN in the upper abdomen. Some people also experience NAUSEA, VOMITING, and excessive belching. Certain foods or drinks, such as spicy foods or caffeinated beverages, often worsen the discomfort, as do medications such as aspirin and other NONSTEROIDAL
Digestive hormones - chemical messengers that stimulate or inhibit gastrointestinal functions. Organs and structures of the gastrointestinal system synthesize and release digestive hormones in response to chemical and physiologic changes that take place with the ingestion of food and its passage through the gastrointestinal tract.
Colon - the large intestine, which extracts water from and consolidates the waste byproducts of digestion. The colon extends from the ILEUM, the final segment of the SMALL INTESTINE, to the ANUS, the exit from the body for solid digestive waste (feces or stool). The colon goes up the left side of the abdomen (the ascending colon), across the abdomen at the
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a rare disorder in which the STOMACH dramatically increases hydrochloric acid production, resulting in rampant PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome develops as a consequence of benign tumors, called gastrinomas, that secrete the digestive HORMONE gastrin. Gastrin signals the stomach to produce acid, which the
Stomach - the pouchlike organ that receives and digests food. The stomach can stretch up to six times its resting size to accommodate influxes of food and drink up to about the combined quantity of a gallon. Three layers of MUSCLE wrap around the deeply pitted gastric mucosa (mucous membrane lining of the stomach). The fibers of each muscle layer run in
Rectum - the segment of the COLON between the sigmoid colon and the ANUS. About six inches long, the rectum retains solid digestive waste until a BOWEL MOVEMENT expels it. The SPINAL CORD regulates the NERVE impulses that initiate the reflexive contractions of the rectum that result in bowel movements. The walls of the rectum are smooth and flexible,
Anus - the opening through which the body passes solid waste (feces), below the final segment of the COLON and the terminus of the gastrointestinal system. The anal sphincter is a ring of MUSCLE that contracts to contain fecal matter and relaxes to expel it. Learning to control the contraction and relaxation of the anal sphincter begins to take place at age
Cecum - the first segment of the COLON (large intestine) into which the ILEUM, the final segment of the SMALL INTESTINE, empties digestive matter. The cecum is a pouchlike structure located in the lower right abdomen that absorbs water from the waste, returning fluid to the body and consolidating the waste for its journey through the end stage of digestion.
Celiac Disease is a condition affecting the SMALL INTESTINE in which consuming foods that contain gluten, a plant protein prominent in wheat, triggers an inflammatory response that prevents the intestinal mucosa (lining) from absorbing NUTRIENTS. Gluten, and more specifically proteins it contains called gliadins, acts as an ANTIGEN to initiate a localized
Cholecystectomy is a surgical OPERATION to remove the GALLBLADDER. Cholecystectomy is the most common treatment in the United States for GALLBLADDER DISEASE including gallstones (cholelithiasis), cholecystitis (INFLAMMATION or INFECTION of the gallbladder), and biliary dyskinesia (diminished ability of the gallbladder to eject BILE). About 500,000 Americans