Side Effect is an action other than the intended therapeutic effect of a DRUG. Side effects may be neutral, beneficial, or harmful. Many side effects are so common as to be expected, such as DIARRHEA with certain ANTIBIOTIC MEDICATIONS (which occurs because antibiotics kill BACTERIA, including the bacteria that normally reside in the gastrointestinal tract to aid in digestion). Some side effects are temporary, such as drowsiness when first beginning treatment with ANTIDEPRESSANT MEDICATIONS (which affect neurotransmitters and functions of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM) and NAUSEA at the onset of therapy with antihypertensive medications (which affect the autonomic NERVOUS SYSTEM). A harmful side effect (one that has serious or long-term health consequences) is an ADVERSE DRUG REACTION. It is important to know what side effects can occur with all medications a person is taking, for each individual drug as well as for the drugs in combination with each other. In the United States federal and state laws require product package inserts or label information to contain brief information about possible side effects.
See also ALCOHOL INTERACTIONS WITH MEDICATIONS; DRUG INTERACTION; NEUROTRANSMITTER; OFF-LABEL USE.
Resource: Facts On File Encyclopedia Of Health And Medicine
Side Effect is an action other than the intended therapeutic effect of a DRUG. Side effects may be neutral, beneficial, or harmful. Many side effects are so common as to be expected, such as DIARRHEA with certain ANTIBIOTIC MEDICATIONS (which occurs because antibiotics kill BACTERIA, including the bacteria that normally reside in the gastrointestinal tract
Trough Level is the amount of a DRUG in the BLOOD circulation at the drug’s lowest therapeutic concentration. Generally the trough level occurs immediately before the person is due to take the next DOSE of the drug. The trough level helps the doctor determine if the dosage is appropriate to achieve the desired therapeutic effect and is useful
Drug - any product that, when it enters the body, changes the function of the body in some way. Drugs such as ANTIBIOTIC MEDICATIONS work by killing BACTERIA within the body, for example, and antiarrhythmia drugs work by altering the electrical activity of the HEART. As the mainstay of modern medicine, drugs exert therapeutic actions to treat numerous
Dosage - the therapeutic course of a DRUG, encompassing the drug’s DOSE (amount of the drug taken), the frequency of the doses, the health condition and status of the person (including age and gender), and the total length of time the drug the person needs to take the drug. For many drugs there are standard dosages that are applicable to most people.
Dose is the amount of a DRUG a person takes or receives at a single time. A dose falls within a recommended therapeutic range for the drug, the person’s condition, and the person’s personal health circumstances (including age and gender). An excess of this amount is an OVERDOSE, which can have serious and even fatal consequences.
Bioavailability is the amount of a DRUG’S active ingredient the body absorbs and the length of time it takes for that ingredient to cause an effect in the body. A common means of determining bioavailability is to measure the concentrations of the drug in the BLOOD circulation or in the URINE at certain time intervals. Doctors know the spectrum of
Bioequivalence - a DRUG that has the same biological effect in the body as a substance the body makes naturally (such as a HORMONE supplement) or two or more drugs that have the same BIOAVAILABILITY and EFFICACY. Bioequivalence is a significant concern with NARROW THERAPEUTIC INDEX (NTI) drugs, which require precise and consistent dosing, as well as with
Cytochrome P450 enzymes - a group of about 60 endogenous enzymes (enzymes the body produces) that participate in the METABOLISM of drugs. The CYP450 enzymes also participate in lipid (notably cholesterol) and steroid HORMONE synthesis. Most of the CYP450 enzymes that are active in DRUG metabolism are in the LIVER and the SMALL INTESTINE. The CYP450 enzymes
Drug Interaction is an effect or action that occurs in the body as a consequence of taking two or more drugs that does not occur when taking any one of the drugs alone. Drugs may interact with each other, OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) DRUGS and products, vitamin and mineral supplements, MEDICINAL HERBS AND BOTANICALS, and foods. Most DRUG interactions are
Adverse Drug Reaction - an undesired, negative, and often unpleasant response to a medication. People commonly refer to adverse DRUG reactions as side effects, which is not entirely accurate because a SIDE EFFECT may have therapeutic value whereas an adverse drug reaction is potentially harmful. Adverse drug reactions are common, affecting more than two